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RBI & how its policies can start to affect the market

Disclaimer: This DD is to help start forming a market view as per RBI announcements. Also a gentle reminder that fundamentals play out over a longer time frame than intraday. The authors take no responsiblity for your yolos.
With contributions by Asli Bakchodi, Bran OP & dragononweed!

What is the RBI?
RBI is the central bank of India. They are one of the key players who affect India’s economic trajectory. They control currency supply, banking rules and more. This means that it is not a bank in which retailers or corporates can open an account with. Instead they are a bank for bankers and the Government of India.
Their functions can be broadly classified into 6.
· Monetary authority
· Financial supervisor for financial system
· Issuer of currency
· Manages Foreign exchange
· Bankers bank
· Banker to the government
This DD will take a look at each of these functions. It will be followed by a list of rates the RBI sets, and how changes in them can affect the market.
1. Monetary Authority
One of RBI’s functions is to achieve the goal of “Price Stability” in the economy. This essentially means achieving an inflation rate that is within a desired limit.
A monetary policy committee (MPC) decides on the desired inflation rate and its limits through majority vote of its 6 members, in consultation with the GoI.
The current inflation target for RBI is as follows
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI): 4%
Upper Limit: 6%
Lower Limit: 2%
An increase in CPI means less purchasing power. Generally speaking, if inflation is too high, the public starts cutting down on spending, leading to a negative impact on the markets. And vice versa. Lower inflation leads to more purchasing power, more spending, more investments leading to a positive impact on the market.
2. Financial Supervisor For Financial System
A financial system consists of financial markets (Capital market, money market, forex market etc.), financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, NBFC etc) & financial assets (currencies, bills, bonds etc)
RBI supervises this entire system and lays down the rules and regulations for it. It can also use further ‘Selective Credit Controls’ to regulate banks.
3. Issues of currency
The RBI is responsible for the printing of currency notes. RBI is free to print as much as it wants as long as the minimum reserve of Rs 200 Cr (Gold 112 Cr) is maintained. The RBI has total assets or a balance size sheet of Rs. 51 trillion (April 2020). (1 Trillion = 1 Lakh crore)
India’s current reserves mean our increase in currency circulation is well managed.
4. Manages Foreign Exchange
RBI regulates all of India’s foreign exchange transactions. It is the custodian of all of foreign currencies in India. It allows for the foreign exchange value of the rupee to be controlled. RBI also buy and sell rupees in the foreign exchange market at its discretion.
In case of any currency movement, a country’s central bank can directly intervene to either push the currency up, as India has been doing, or to keep it artificially low, as the Chinese central bank does. To push up a currency, a central bank can sell dollars, which is the global reserve currency, or the currency against which all others are measured. To push down a currency, a central bank can buy dollars.
The RBI deciding this depends on the import/export and financial health of the country. Generally a weaker rupee means imports are more expensive, but are favourable for exports. And a stronger rupee means imports are cheaper but are unfavourable for exports.
A weaker rupee can make foreign investment more lucrative driving up FII. A stronger rupee can have an adverse effect of FII investing in markets.
5. Banker’s Bank
Every bank has to maintain a certain amount of reserve with the RBI. A certain percentage of a bank’s liabilities (anywhere between 3-15% as decided by RBI) has to be maintained in this account. This is called the Cash Reserve Ratio. This is determined by the MPC during the monetary policy review (which happens every six weeks at present).
It lends money from this reserve to other banks if they are short on cash, but generally, it is seen as a last resort move. Banks are encouraged to meet their shortfalls of cash from other resources.
6. Banker to the government
RBI is the entity that carries out ALL monetary transactions on behalf of the Government. It holds custody of the cash balance of the Government, gives temporary loans to both central and state governments and manages the debt operations of the central Government, through instruments of debt and the interest rates associated with them - like bonds.
The different rates set & managed by RBI
- Repo rate
The rate at which RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks is called as Repo Rate.
Banks sometimes need money for emergency or to maintain the SLR and CRR (explained below). They borrow this from RBI but have to pay some interest on it. The interest that is to be paid on the amount to the RBI is called as Repo Rate.
It does not function like a normal loan but acts like a forward contract. Banks have to provide collateral like government bonds, T-bills etc. Repo means Repurchase Option is the true meaning of Repo an agreement where the bank promises to repurchase these government securities after the repo period is over.
As a tool to control inflation, RBI increases the Repo Rate making it more expensive for banks to borrow from the RBI with a view to restrict availability of money. Exact opposite stance shall be taken in case of deflationary environment.
The change of repo rate is aimed to affect the flow of money in the economy. An increase in repo rate decreases the flow of money in the economy, while the decrease in repo rate increases the flow of money in the economy. RBI by changing these rates shows its stance to the economy at large whether they prioritize growth or inflation.
- Reverse Repo Rate
The rate at which the RBI is willing to borrow from the Banks is called as Reverse Repo Rate. If the RBI increases the reverse repo rate, it means that the RBI is willing to offer lucrative interest rate to banks to park their money with the RBI. Banks in this case agree to resell government securities after reverse repo period.
Generally, an increase in reverse repo rate that banks will have a higher incentive to park their money with RBI. It decreases liquidity, affecting the market in a negative manner. Decrease in reverse repo rate increases liquidity affecting the market in a positive manner.
Both the repo rate and reverse repo rate fall under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility tools for RBI.
- Cash reserve ratio (CRR)
Banks in India are required to deposit a specific percentage of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in the form of CASH with the RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. These reserves will not be in circulation at any point in time.
For example, if a bank had a NDTL (like current Account, Savings Account and Fixed Deposits) of 100Cr and the CRR is at 3%, it would have to keep 3Cr as Cash reserve ratio to the RBI. This amount earns no interest.
Currently it is at 3%. A lower cash ratio means banks can deposit just a lower amount and use the remaining money leading to higher liquidity. This translates to more money to invest which is seen as positive for the market. Inversely, a higher cash ratio equates to lower liquidity which translates to a negative market sentiment.
Thus, the RBI uses the CRR to control excess money flow and regulate liquidity in the economy.
- Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR)
Banks in India have to keep a certain percentage of their net demand and time liabilities WITH THEMSELVES. And this can be in the form of liquid assets like gold and government securities, not just cash. A lot of banks keep them in government bonds as they give a decent interest.
The current SLR ratio of 18.25%, which means that for every Rs.100 deposited in a bank, it has to invest Rs.18.50 in any of the asset classes approved by RBI.
A low SLR means higher levels of loans to the private sector. This boosts investment and acts as a positive sentiment for the market. Conversely a high SLR means tighter levels of credit and can cause a negative effect on the market.
Essentially, the RBI uses the SLR to control ease of credit in the economy. It also ensures that the banks maintain a certain level of funds to meet depositor’s demands instead of over liquidation.
- Bank Rate
Bank rate is a rate at which the Reserve Bank of India provides the loan to commercial banks without keeping any security. There is no agreement on repurchase that will be drawn up or agreed upon with no collateral as well. This is different from repo rate as loans taken with repo rate are taken on the basis of securities. Bank rate hence is higher than the repo rate.
Currently the bank rate is 4.25%. Since bank rate is essentially a loan interest rate like repo rate, it affects the market in similar ways.
- Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)
This is the minimum rate below which the banks are not allowed to lend. Raising this rate, makes loans more expensive, drying up liquidity, affecting the market in a negative way. Similarly, lower MCLR rates will bring in high liquidity, affecting the market in a positive way.
MCLR is a varying lending rate instead of a single rate according to the kind of loans. Currently, the MCLR rate is between 6.65% - 7.15%
- Marginal Standing facility
Marginal Standing Facility is the interest rate at which a depository institution (generally banks) lends or borrows funds with another depository institution in the overnight market. Overnight market is the part of financial market which offers the shortest term loans. These loans have to be repaid the next day.
MSF can be used by a bank after it exhausts its eligible security holdings for borrowing under other options like the Liquidity adjustment facilities.
The MSF would be a penal rate for banks and the banks can borrow funds by pledging government securities within the limits of the statutory liquidity ratio.
The current rate stands at 4.25%. The effect it has on the market is synonymous with the other lending rates such as repo rate & bank rate.
- Loan to value ratio
The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk that financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, loan assessments with high LTV ratios are considered higher risk loans.
Basically, if a companies preferred form of collateral rises in value and leads the market (growing faster than the market), then the company will see the loans that it signed with higher LTV suddenly reduce (but the interest rate remains the same).
Let’s consider an example of gold as a collateral. Consider a loan was approved with gold as collateral. The market price for gold is Rs 2000/g, and for each g, a loan of Rs 1500 was given. (The numbers are simplified for understanding). This would put LTV of the loan at 1500/2000 = 0.75. Since it is a substantial LTV, say the company priced the loan at 20% interest rate.
Now the next year, the price of gold rose to Rs 3000/kg. This would mean that the LTV of the current loan has changed to 0.5 but the company is not obligated to change the interest rate. This means that even if the company sees a lot of defaults, it is fairly protected by the unexpected surge in the underlying asset. Moreover, since the underlying asset is more valuable, default rates for the loans goes down as people are more protective of the collateral they have placed.
The same scenario for gold is happening right now and is the reason for gold backed loan providers like MUTHOOT to hit ATHs as gold is leading the economy right now. Also, these in these scenarios, it also enables companies to offer additional loan on same gold for those who are interested Instead of keeping the loan amount same most of the gold loan companies.
Based on above, we can see that as RBI changes LTV for certain assets, we are in a position to identify potential institutions that could get a good Quarterly result and try to enter it early.
Conclusion
The above rates contain the ways in the Central Bank manages the monetary policy, growth and inflation in the country.
Its impact on Stock market is often seen when these rates are changed, they act as triggers for the intraday positions on that day. But overall, the outlook is always maintained on how the RBI sees the country is doing, and knee jerk reactions are limited to intraday positions. The long term stance is always well within the limits of the outlook the big players in the market are expecting.
The important thing to keep in mind is that the problems facing the economy needn’t be uni-dimensional. Problems with inflation, growth, liquidity, currency depreciation all can come together, for which the RBI will have to play a balancing role with all it powers to change these rates and the forex reserve. So the effect on the market needs to be given more thought than simply extrapolated as ‘rates go low, markets go up’.
But understanding these individual effects of these rates allows you to start putting together the puzzle of how and where the market and the economy could go.
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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
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Barclay Stone CFD Forex broker, opinia: Amazon nie pozostawia konkurencji, uruchamiając dostawę za pomocą dronów

Barclay Stone CFD Forex broker, opinia: Amazon nie pozostawia konkurencji, uruchamiając dostawę za pomocą dronów
Niedawno Amazon otrzymał pozwolenie od Federalnej Administracji Lotnictwa USA (FAA) na wykonywanie podróży lotniczych i pozwolenie na dostarczanie towarów za pomocą dronów. Amazon już stworzył drona, który może zastąpić kurierów - jest to dron-heksakoptera MK27, podnoszący ładunki o wadze do 2,5 kg. Kilka lat temu firma opatentowała nawet specjalną wieżę-ulej dla dronów (do startu i lądowania dronów, a także dla obsługiwania dostawy automatycznej i klientów). Chociaż nie jest to pełnoprawna premiera, Amazon testuje ten pomysł na kilku witrynach testowych w USA. Projekt Amazon Prime Air wystartował jeszcze w 2013 roku, ale duża liczba ograniczeń sprzętowych i problemów bezpieczeństwa związanych z wprowadzeniem dronów, spowalnia proces zastępowania ludzi robotami. Poza tym, projekt jest niesamowicie drogi. Oczywiście wprowadzenie dostawy za pomocą dronów, zwiększa zainteresowanie inwestorów i popyt na usługi Amazona nad konkurencją. Po ogłoszeniu tej wiadomości wartość akcji spółki wzrosła o 2%. Zapraszamy na naszą platformę handlową.
Obejrz recenzję na brokera tu: https://www.rubaltic.ru/press/barclay-stone-recenzja-platformy-handlowej-oraz-opinie-o-firmie/

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Just how did the British steal from India. A brief explanation of the systems and flows of the Raj that allowed the loot

Many big numbers and statements are thrown around, "the British looted $75tn", "the British stole from India" and so on and so forth, the question though is, how was this actually done? The below is a very brief primer on how the British exploited India.
The short answer is brutally simple and effective.
Suck out raw materials from India, make it a captive market for finished British goods
But the question is then, how will a bankrupt India pay for the British imports? And that's where we come across the first set of complications and the start of the web of British trade with London in the centre.
The triangle
To allow Indian markets the ability to consume British products, you first need to generate some form of income.
Enter China and the Opium wars.
A brief on the Opium wars though as it is largely unknown to most people. One way the EIC funded it's expansionist wars in India in the 1750's was by illegally exporting Opium from India into China. By the late 1770's it was Illegally exporting some 300,000 KG of Indian Opium into China. To put things into context Escobar used to smuggle about 1,00,000 kg of cocaine every year into the USA. The EIC smuggled in 3 times that much and we are just beginning b
The Chinese protested, ofc they did. They raided ships carrying cocaine, imposed laws banning it's usage, but the EIC protested to the British govt strongly it's rights to smuggle Opium and things continued.
By 1830 the British (and Americans now) were smuggling some 2.3mn tonnes of Opium every year. That is 23 times what Escobar managed.
Apologists to British war crimes can't even argue that this was all illegal as the full support of the British govt was behind this. Even a direct letter to Queen Victoria, pleading for the British to stop this trade fellow deaf years.
All the cocaine then used to be shipped to Canton (it was a free port under control by the Western govts) from where it would be trafficked inland. After all the pleas and protests by the Chinese govt fell on deaf years and with an Opium epidemic caused by cheaply available Opium started to ravage the whole of south China, the Emperor had enough and ordered his troops into Canton to seize and destroy all opium stocks.
This triggered the first Opium war.
By the 1850's Britain was exporting some 6mn tonnes (60 times of Escobar) Opium from India to China.
This again caused a backlash in China and the 2nd Opium War which... amongst other things resulted in the legalisation of Opium consumption.
By the 1890's Opium exports touched 9mn tonnes (90 times Escobar)
And this was the source of money for India to buy British imports.
In India land "reforms" (they weren't reforms), taxation "reforms"(not reforms again) meant that from 1780-1840 there had been a crazy shift of cultivation patterns. It went from a balance of food and cash crops to a priority given to Cash crops (Opium, Cotton, Indigo etc). This was one of the leading causes for the genocidal famine mortality rates but more on that later.
In a nutshell, Indian large scale farmers acquired land from bankrupt farmers (Famines mostly) and started pushing cash crops > more Famines > more bankrupt farmers > more land purchased for almost free > more cash crops > more Famines.
These exports then earned enough cash to purchase British Imports.
In 1780 India was an exporting nation. By 1820 it was exporting ZERO finished goods and importing everything from Britain.
China till 1800 was the largest export nation on earth (Angus Maddison) and by 1830 a net importing nation.
In summary It was a triangular trade.
India exported Opium, Cotton Yarn to China > this enabled it to earn enough forex > purchase British goods.
Now mind you the British took away Indian cotton yarn (the raw material) to Britain at fixed rock bottom prices and this was spun into coarse finished cotton that came back to India.
End it part 1.
Part 2 I will cover the gold standard scam, cause for famine mortality rates and a summary to tie it all in.
submitted by RajaRajaC to IndiaSpeaks [link] [comments]

Best Rate, Best Service 💵 Osaka will help you for all Forex Services 💶💱 💴

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Digital Gold token, Highlighting the values and costs of Gold

Digital Gold token, Highlighting the values and costs of Gold
Gold is an extraordinary asset for financial specialists to broaden their portfolio. It is an incredible asset to claim so as to shield you from expansion.
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The cost of Gold

Gold is an asset that is known to shield its financial specialists from swelling.


Here is only a brisk model
On the off chance that one had put 300 Dollars in 2000, these 300 Dollars would be worth 1450 Dollars in 2020.
On the off chance that one would have quite recently held his cash in US-Dollar these 300 Dollar would have a purchasing intensity of around 200 Dollars. Furthermore, not at all like paper cash, gold can't be duplicated voluntarily. This impediment and the colossal interest simultaneously guarantee that the Gold value ascends after some time.

https://preview.redd.it/7x7u8vw4x7j41.jpg?width=302&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=78adb8168d478b364f8b14f0793f8c0703800e38

Putting resources into Gold

Gold has some critical detriments like its stockpiling issue. In the event that you put into Gold you need to store your Gold some place, where it is secured and safe.
Another viewpoint is what one can not go with 100 kg of Gold in your packs.
There are various potential outcomes to put resources into Gold:
Gold Testaments
Certain money related testaments mirror the gold cost, yet are not stored with physical gold. In the event that the backer of the speculation gets bankrupt, the financial specialist is in danger of misfortunes up to and including all out misfortune.
ETCs
Trade Exchanged Wares (ETCs) are bonds that securitize the estimation of a specific measure of gold and regularly incorporate a privilege to the physical conveyance of that gold. There is likewise a danger of the guarantor failing, since financial specialists may then need to uphold their cases in court.

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Gold offers
Interests in the portions of gold mine administrators are likewise viewed as a type of interest in gold. Notwithstanding, not just the gold cost is significant at the cost improvement, yet additionally different factors, for example, the pioneering aptitudes of the particular administrator and the general advancement of the financial exchanges.

Digital Gold

This is the motivation behind why Digital Gold (https://gold.storage/de/home) thought of its Gold-token. Every Gold token is supported up by 1 ounze of 1 Gramm Gold — 99,99% Gold.
Every GOLD token is 100% secured by physical gold, which is kept in a safe vault.
The Gold.storage site permits the GOLD token holders that a boundless measure of GOLD can be purchased/traded quickly and whenever on their site this implies GOLD token can be sold whenever.
Focal points
First you don't have to stress where to store your gold on the off chance that you have bigger measures of gold ounzes. Your capacity expenses and administration costs, contrasted with the expense of putting away gold at a bank, are essentially lower.

https://preview.redd.it/ytv906eax7j41.jpg?width=299&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d9fecc441727ab347c8d78ca01069873613cf999
Also, it takes care of the issue of going with gold — Essentially, you simply need to have your private key with you.
The GOLD-Token is an ERC20 token which menas it depends on the ethereum blockchain. Along these lines you just need the private key for your eth wallet so as to get to you gold.
Finally, on the off chance that you need your Gold in physical structure you can return to the gold.storage site and exchange your tokens for physical gold at some random time.
Where would you be able to get GOLD-tokens
DigitalGold is currently recorded on BitForex, Livecoin, Cryptex trade.

Get further details below;
Official Website : https://gold.Storage/
White paper: https://gold.Storage/wp.Pdf
Telegram: https://t.Me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.Com/golderc20

submitted by mkristen024 to IcoInvestor [link] [comments]

Gold is an incredible asset for financial specialists to broaden their portfolio

Gold is an incredible asset for financial specialists to broaden their portfolio
Gold is an incredible asset for financial specialists to broaden their portfolio. It is an incredible asset to possess so as to shield you from swelling.
The cost of Gold
Gold is an asset that is known to shield its speculators from swelling.

https://preview.redd.it/6dleiq12sfi41.jpg?width=284&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5d8849eb642ae9ec368b2548443a85201b6a4359
  • On the off chance that one had put 300 Dollars in 2000, these 300 Dollars would be worth 1450 Dollars in 2020.
  • On the off chance that one would have recently held his cash in US-Dollar these 300 Dollar would have a purchasing intensity of around 200 Dollars. What's more, not normal for paper cash, gold can't be duplicated freely. This restriction and the colossal interest simultaneously guarantee that the Gold value ascends after some time.

https://preview.redd.it/iz7n6my0sfi41.jpg?width=3996&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=801a35522c7d90775da8d31bb97f7a80d4f6f1db
Putting resources into Gold
Gold has some critical hindrances like its stockpiling issue. On the off chance that you put into Gold you need to store your Gold some place, where it is secured and safe.

https://preview.redd.it/dx7d7w73sfi41.jpg?width=318&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=07d9481e3474c89e9ac143158b497618fc7a3de8
Another perspective is what one can not go with 100 kg of Gold in your packs.
There are various potential outcomes to put resources into Gold:

Gold Declarations

Certain monetary authentications mirror the gold cost, however are not saved with physical gold. In the event that the backer of the speculation gets indebted, the financial specialist is in danger of misfortunes up to and including complete misfortune.


ETCs

Trade Exchanged Products (ETCs) are bonds that securitize the estimation of a specific measure of gold and frequently incorporate a privilege to the physical conveyance of that gold. There is likewise a danger of the guarantor failing, since speculators may then need to authorize their cases in court.


https://preview.redd.it/ngf380b4sfi41.jpg?width=300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d3357324b2709026507ab82f275809c14c69aa5a

Gold offers

Interests in the portions of gold mine administrators are likewise viewed as a type of interest in gold. Nonetheless, not just the gold value is significant at the cost improvement, yet in addition different factors, for example, the pioneering abilities of the individual administrator and the general advancement of the securities exchanges.


Digital Gold

This is the motivation behind why Digital Gold (https://gold.storage/de/home) thought of its Gold-token. Every Gold token is supported up by 1 ounze of 1 Gramm Gold - 99,99% Gold.


Every GOLD token is 100% secured by physical gold, which is kept in a protected vault.
The Gold.storage site permits the GOLD token holders that a boundless measure of GOLD can be purchased/traded promptly and whenever on their site this implies GOLD token can be sold whenever.

https://preview.redd.it/7c3tklv4sfi41.jpg?width=184&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3da57b24ee006c60de2ca041e2736323ece270d3

Points of interest

First you don't have to stress where to store your gold on the off chance that you have bigger measures of gold ounzes. Your stockpiling expenses and administration costs, contrasted with the expense of putting away gold at a bank, are essentially lower.

Also, it takes care of the issue of going with gold - Fundamentally, you simply need to have your private key with you.
The GOLD-Token is an ERC20 token which menas it depends on the ethereum blockchain. In this way you just need the private key for your eth wallet so as to get to you gold.
Ultimately, on the off chance that you need your Gold in physical structure you can return to the gold.storage site and exchange your tokens for physical gold at some random time.

Where would you be able to get GOLD-tokens

https://preview.redd.it/73221eo5sfi41.jpg?width=299&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=160b3639c641ada1a7d8659b811add6927453f7f

DigitalGold is presently recorded on BitForex, Livecoin, Cryptex trade.

Here is the connection to the DigitalGold site: https://gold.storage
Official Website: https://gold.Storage/
White paper: https://gold.Storage/wp.Pdf


Author: Wayrey2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2395392
submitted by willliams1 to BountyICO [link] [comments]

[REVIEW] My First Haul

PK BASF YEEZY BOOST 350 V2 CLAYS
 
Seller: Vicky
Payment Assistance: Zendrian Global Trading
Shipping Agent: Zendrian Global Trading
 
January 5 – Inquire the availability of the shoes and its price in CNY from Vicky’s WhatsApp.
January 6 – Paid Vicky through Zendrian’s payment assistance.
January 7 – Vicky gave the QCs through WhatsApp
January 8 – GLed the pair then Vicky shipped immediately that day.
January 10 – Received by Zendrian warehouse in China
January 17 – Zendrian told me that the package is now available for pickup.
 
Verdict
Seller: My first pair from her. Sobrang bilis niyang mag-reply sa mga inquiry ko. Straightforward lang naman transaction namin. Tinanong ko kung available, price and to be shipped domestically. After that, siya na nagtatanong ng info needed for those. Gaganda ng PK BASF niya imagine GL agad first QC. One more thing, nakadouble box nung sinend niya kay Zendrian. I would love to buy again from her in the future.
Payment Assistance: Mas mura rate ni Zendrian Global Trading kesa SWK. Anyway, mabagal mag-reply and if possible dapat lahat nagawa mo na kung makikipagtransaction ka sakanila like nahulog mo na sa BDO account yung bayad mo and nabigay mo na Alipay account ng seller mo. Since sila palang naman available na murang payment assistance, I would definitely use their payment assistance again in the future unless may bago silang contender.
Shipping Agent: As you can see, almost 7 days bago ko nakuha yung package ko. Medyo pricey with average shipping time and a bad CS. Yung iba 1.5kg yung 1 pair nila sakin 2kg (Yeezys and double boxed din), seems like inconsistent yung weight calculation nila. Paswertehan nalang siguro kung maka1.5 ka or 2kg per pair. Anyway, with this experience, I will not use them again as shipping agent.
 
Price Calculations:
Shoes – 520CNY
Payment Assistance – 7.3946 (BDO Forex) x 1.015 x 520 = 3,903 + 200 = 4,103 PHP
Shipping – 800 PHP / kg x 2 kg = 1,600 PHP + 244 PHP (Lalamove) = 1,844 PHP
Total = 5,947 PHP
 
BUDGET BATCH YEEZY BOOST 350 V2 TRUEFORM & STATIC REFLECTIVE
 
Seller: BMLIN (Yupoo)
Shopping Agent: Ytaopal
Payment Assistance: Zendrian Global Trading
Shipping Agent: Sunwukong/Metro Mercado/Sapo
 
January 6 – Order made in Ytaopal website
January 7 – Ytaopal paid the seller (BMLIN)
January 10 – Received by Ytaopal. Gave me their free QCs
January 13 – Shipped by Ytaopal to SWK’s warehouse in China
January 15 – Received by SWK in China
January 17 – SWK told me that the package is now available for pickup
 
Verdict
Shoes: Ganda ng shoes. It feels great on-foot. However, may mga imperfections lang siya like hindi magkapantay yung stripes and yung pagka-angle niya sa likod ng sapatos. Pero for the price, good quality na siya. You get what you pay for naman.
Ytaopal: Limited yung CS nila which is available only from 9:30AM to 6PM. Also, it’s not available ng lunchtime 12:00PM to 1:00PM. Napakadaling mag-order sa site nila dahil din siguro sa gumawa ng guide (thanks to you!). Anyway, ayoko lang medyo panget yung packing process nila dahil siguro libre lang. Nilagay lang nila yung bawat sapatos sa isang bubble sleeves (4 bubble sleeves in total) then with outer layer na plastic. (for reference) Their CS is not that bad and not that great, but they can do things naman. Like nagrequest ka for QCs this day, expect it na makukuha mo na the next day. Anyway, when it comes to purchasing sa Yupoo, I’ll use Ytaopal again dahil mababa lang fee nila (4%).
Shipping Agent: Halos same CS quality lang sila ni Zendrian but wow, grabe 2 days lang nasa Pinas na agad yung package ko. Yung package in good condition naman, walang sira or whatsoever. Anyway, I would use them again in my next haul dahil napakamura ng rate nila compared kay Zendrian kahit na medyo inconsistent yung shipping time.
 
Price Calculations:
Shoes – 180CNY (Static Reflective) & 160CNY (Trueform) = 340CNY
Domestic Shipping – 30CNY (BMLIN to Ytaopal) + 55CNY (Ytaopal to SWK) = 85CNY
Ytaopal’s Additional Fees – 340 + 85 = 425CNY x 1.04 = 442CNY
Payment Assistance – 7.3946 (BDO Forex) x 1.015 x 442CNY = 3,318 PHP + 133 = 3,451 PHP
Shipping – 580 PHP / kg x 1.5 kg = 870 PHP + 132 PHP (Lalamove) = 1,002 PHP
Total = 3,451 + 1,002 = 4,453 PHP
 
GUCCI ACE BEES EMBROIDERED SNEAKER
 
Seller: Jin (Yupoo)
Shopping Agent: Ytaopal
Payment Assistance: Zendrian Global Trading
Shipping Agent: DHL
 
January 6 – Order made in Ytaopal website
January 7 – Ytaopal paid Jin
January 13 – Received by Ytaopal. Gave me their free QCs
January 15 – Shipped by Ytaopal to DHL
PENDING –
 
Verdict
Shoes: -
Shipping Agent: No to DHL again.
 
Price Calculations
Shoes – 450CNY
Domestic Shipping – 10CNY (Jin to Ytaopal)
DHL Fees – 2.9kg (double box) = 300CNY
Ytaopal’s Additional Fees – 460 + 300 = 760CNY x 1.04 = 790.4CNY
Payment Assistance - 7.3946 (BDO Forex) x 1.015 x 790.4CNY = 5,933 PHP + 67 = 6,000 PHP
Total = 6,000 PHP
 
NOTES:
Vicky’s WhatsApp – +8615892088077
Zendrian Global Trading
BMLIN’s Yupoo
Jin’s Yupoo
Sunwukongph
Ytaopal Guide
submitted by bandosarmadyl to u/bandosarmadyl [link] [comments]

My 1 year on NOFAP/NOPMO Failure with benefits…


Hello guys i hope this story is not going to take your time more than 10 mintues, but believe me every second will be worth of it. So i wanted to share my story of 1year nofap, my life before starting nofap, while i was on nofap the good, the bad … i started this challenge 23 august 2018 and to be honest with you guys it was hard and somehow i failed. Yes i did ejaculate , yes i did edge and hell yes i watched porn but i still saw some benefits and still learned something. But before i continue with my story i want to tell you that the reason why i want to share my story with you is because i don’t see people posting videos that they failed on this journey at least maybe on their 1st attempt, they all seem like they are succeeding on their first attempt, and i am not saying that is not possible, but i want to support guys who started the journey and they failed just like me. so here we go… i started my journey on 23.august.2018 and i still remember my last time that i watched porn hard before starting this journey and that happened 2 days before i started nofap.( I remember masturbating and than feeling really low energy and i started searching on youtube if Masturbating kills your gains, or does masturbating effects your growth of muscles, because i was a person who wanted to have a nice body and i used to workout at the gym but i wasn’t building muscles or gaining weight. I am 187 cm or 6.1 foot long and i was always a skinny guy, i had 75-78 Kg average not to skinny but not even like a regular person compared to how i was trying to lift. So after searching on youtube i found nofap challenge, and believe me i was so interested to know about this nofap challenge so i watched a ton of nofap videos that are on youtube and i saw many people explaining the dark side of masturbating and watching porn and the life changing benefits that you can get from NOFAP/NOPMO … and that is the moment where i realized that porn and masturbating made my life shit, i had anxiety, i was very very very unconfident guy, i was low energy, not motivated, not having balls to approach any girl that i liked etc…. So before talking to the benefits that i have seen or i have felt i will tell you shortly how my life was 3-4 years before i started nofap. I was in a relationship with a girl in my high school since march 2012 until we broke up on november 2016, just trying to explain shortly… so 4 years in a relationship, but on our 3rd year things were getting wrong, we were not happy with our relationship and many other relationship problems, but i remember on that year i used to watch porn a lot, and i remember after going out with her, whenever i came back at home i used to watch porn and masturbate, somehow i wasn’t feeling the joyful moment with her compared to how i was feeling with porn. And almost 1 year later we broke upppp, so my point of this story is that porn destroyed my relationship, within a year, porn it’s a slow killer and you just won’t notice it, you see things in life not going well but you will never notice its because of porn, as much as depressed you are as much as porn you are going to look. Because that;s the only thing that can make your dopamine get higher, or maybe it is the only thing that takes your problems away for a short period of time. I remember i was trying to study hard for my exams, i was in faculty of mechanical enginnering but everytime i was trying to learn more than 1 hour i was feeling very sleepy and very low energy, so every time i was feeling low energy i used to watch porn and masturbate, i didn’t know that porn was the problem, I was just bored and low energy so i decided let’s watch some porn. I continued like this for more than 1/2 year Until i ended on youtube looking for masturbating side effects and ended up finding NOFAP. By the way since i broke up with my girlfriend i never had any other girlfriend, i liked a girl on my university but because of anxiety i was never able to approach her, even though she semmed to like me but still i had no balls to talk to her even when we were walking in front of each other in the opposite direction, and guess what ? She is in a relationship now and i really felt bad when i saw her with her boyfriend walking and holding their hands together. I said to myself, look what porn did to me, look what you lost because of anxiety and being so unconfident, i really felt like a failure a really sad moment…. but at least i was able to graduate from my university. Soo now let’s start telling you about my nofap journey. But before i start ,if you start nofap you have to have goals or ask yourself what is your goal to achive with nofap/nopmo, why are you doing this ? If your answer is because i am bored with my life, i want a better life … It’s okey but have goals first, because if you start with no goals you may be on a 2 months strike and if you are not having any benefit, you will quit. My goal on nofap is to increase confidence. THATS IT… Why confidence? Because being confident is all you need. Girls loveee confident guys, in fact everybody loves confident people. And as i am a forex trader, confidence is much much needed when trading. So i started my nofap challenge on 23.august.2018, it was great on my first 5-6 days, because i could go without ejaculating for 4-5 days even when i was not doing nofap. But after day 7 i started feeling the need of masturbating, and instead of masturbating i started edging, i was touchin my dick and using my imagination and i was able to feel good … So after day 7, almost every day i was edging but i was not feeling the need of looking at porn and i said myself why do people struggle so much getting rid of porn? It was easy for me not to look at porn on that first month. No changes, not even feeling anything better, the only change i saw was Women attraction. Yes even though i was not feeling anything better inside me, not even looking better anything, girls/womans were looking at me, they were turning they head to look at me and i said to myself wooow, how i am attracing girls/boys/people/mean/woman without feeling anything better. But it was because of holding my sement on my body and not ejaculating. So if you don’t throw/waste that sement, if you don’t throw it away, girls-womans even guys will look at you more, they will feel your power. Guys will say wow he is cool, and womans will say wow he is a real man. That’s just the point of why sement makes you more attractive to people, it makes you more masculine, but the benefit of sement preservation doesn’t stop here, belive me since i started nopmo i started gaining wheight, i was skinny and people that are fat when they start nopmo they are more likely to lose weight, so benefits in both people skinny or fat it doesn’t matter, i am more powerful at gym, my knees don’t crackle like they used to… and do you know why ?? Because of that powerfull minerals, vitamins, nutritions that we used to through it cheaply with masturbation.. now is hold and used in my body. So the first benefit was women attraction… So my second benefit is actually not masturbating, and if you are saying wtf is this guy saying, just think for a second, I am not wasting my time every day for 1 hour to watch porn, opening multiple tabs of porn to watch, i am using that time on other stuff to do , so that is a worth mentioning benefit. My third benefit was that i had more energy to do things, and more power to train harde lift heavier. Before i finish, i found my key to not watch porn anymore and not edge or masturbate. I don’t know how much you guys are religious buy i made a promise to god, that i won’t ever watch porn and masturbate anymore. (I know it sound dumb to some people but since that day i never even thought of doing POM because i would feel so shame on myself that i broke my promise to god for a short imagination of happiness).
Before i started nofap my confidence on a scale from 0 to 10 was -8, yeap -8 so unconfident… And now that i am on nofap my confidence is like -3… still not confident but i won;t give up. I know good days will come ! On my photos RED cross means (Realpse, sometimes with Porn), a weat dream is with a blue circle or a sleepy emoji.
Little suggestion: Stop getting to day 0 after a relapse, just continue the journey just like i did, and you will get to a point that you will look and will say “I only relapsed 3 times last month compared to when i was on PMO and that’s a good sign of a good life that will come to you”.
If you are horny and you want to relapse, just think how shit your life is. Try it and feel like a piece of shit and remember that moment, so when you get horny again after a long streak just remember how you felt last time after a relapse, and that will make you to go stronger. Lastly even when you see and feel the benefits, this NoPMO lifestyle it’s so hard when you have urges so you don’t even care about benefits, but if you resist you will level up my friend. It’s up to you guys ! STAY STRONG

https://preview.redd.it/f2utcp0z1si31.png?width=3000&format=png&auto=webp&s=616e7e5f2a5ce7a05c9372cd74b40fa0cc244d13
https://preview.redd.it/gb0akm0z1si31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b51c1daddfa0367e14bf17e609d2b6e0f0cf2700
submitted by CuteRelease to NoFap [link] [comments]

Based on your experience, what is the best instrument to trade?

The way I see it is like when you go to the supermarket and buy a product regularly, for example bananas. I know that bananas price range is from 0,99€/Kg to 1,59€/Kg, therefore I know that 0,99€/Kg is a good price to buy and 1,59€/Kg a bad price to buy.

With this example in my, Bitcoin I have no idea what is value range is and what will be worth in the next few days, however the USDEUR pair in Forex seems more predictable to me, therefore so far I find Forex a good instrument to trade compared to Bitcoin, but there might be even better instruments to trade that I might not be aware of, and because of that, I created this post, so I would appreciate your opinion/experience on this.
submitted by danni_darko to Trading [link] [comments]

NEO DevCon Press Release















submitted by Alisa_J to NEO [link] [comments]

Forex Analysis - 03 Sep 2019

Forex Analysis - 03 Sep 2019
#USD Dollar Index (99.21) has surged breaking above 99 and looks strong. It has room to test 99.55-99.60 after which a corrective dip is possible before we see a test of 100-100.5 on the upside.
#forex #forex_trading #currency #currency_trading #forex_analysis #daily_analysis #forex_online

Forex Analysis - 03 Sep 2019
submitted by ronykhanfx to TopAsiaFX [link] [comments]

Forex Daily Forecast - 6 Aug 2019

Forex Daily Forecast - 6 Aug 2019
#AUD/USD on Tuesday is likely to be determined by trader reaction to the former bottom at .6764. If the #AUDUSD takes out Monday’s low at .6748 then the direction will be determined by trader reaction to yesterday’s close at .6757.
#ForexAnalysis #TechnicalAnalysis #Currencies
Forex Daily Forecast - 6 Aug 2019
submitted by ronykhanfx to TopAsiaFX [link] [comments]

Top 3 countries with the most significant uranium reserves

Top 3 countries with the most significant uranium reserves
Some people may think that uranium is used only to make atomic bombs and nuclear power plants. However, uranium has many possibilities for application. Also, this element is of great importance.
That is why ITRADER is going to describe you the top 3 countries with the largest uranium reserves in the world.
3rd place: Russia
Russia ranks third in uranium reserves. According to specialists, there are 487,200 tons of uranium in its depths, which is 9.15% of the world's uranium resources.
https://preview.redd.it/5aimj8tbkx331.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=d77d7ba2926868452118c49159a51341b59d338f
Despite the size of the country and vast reserves of uranium, there are only seven deposits in Russia, and almost all of them are in Transbaikalia.
More than 90% of the mined uranium in the country is from the Chita region.
2nd place: Kazakhstan
The second place in uranium reserves belongs to Kazakhstan. In the Asian country is 11.81% of world fuel reserves, which is equal to 629 thousand tons of uranium.
https://preview.redd.it/61jnduchkx331.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd43cc667fe1665d8806b444dd90464d89a9bcd3
There are 16 developed fields in Kazakhstan, where a valuable resource is mined.
Kazakhstan is a country rich in natural resources. It is noted that 22% of the country's total exports go to Russia and China.
1st place: Australia
Australia is the undisputed leader in uranium reserves in the world. According to the World Nuclear Association, about 31.18% of the world's uranium reserves are in this country, which in numerical terms means 661 thousand tons of uranium.
https://preview.redd.it/gwgsfflskx331.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=744eb38e7c6e46c85bd99c0b437f44b2bd13fbfc
Australia has 19 uranium deposits. The largest and most famous ones are Olympic Dam, where about 3 thousand tons of uranium is extracted per year, Beverly (production of 1 thousand tons) and Honeymoon (900 tons per year). The cost of uranium mining in the country is $40 per 1 kg.
Australia's political and economic stability makes it an ideal place to work for many mining companies, such as Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton Limited.
You can find more information about the cryptocurrency, stock market, and FOREX on the ITRADER site.
Risk Warning: CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 87.07% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.
Legal Information: ITRADER is operated by Hoch Capital Ltd., a Cypriot Investment Firm (CIF), authorized and regulated by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) under the license no. 198/13, in accordance with the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II).
submitted by Itrader_com to u/Itrader_com [link] [comments]

Hump Day Deals: Free Coffee Delivered, Free Haircut, 65 Free Photo Prints

Free potatoes were good but you can't beat free coffee delivered straight to your door.

Freebies

Deals & Coupons

Freebie Redux

In the Herald a couple of months ago, there was a $2 off coupon. Potatoes at Countdown are $1.99 thus making them free. Not sure why these potatoes are $8/kg vs. normal potatoes of around $2.50 but meh it's free.

Wednesday Only Deals

  • Hell Pizza: Free Wedges @ Hell Pizza with code WEDGES
.......
Seems like the Reddit feedback from the previous post was good so thought I'd pick a few freebies & deal from the NZ bargain site I work for. I've put direct links in above but for some it's easier to read the discussion & comments on the bargain site. If you want to find more, ChoiceCheapies (sister site to OzBargain). If you think these posts are crap, tell me and I'll bugger off.
Update 1: Free ice cream from Uber this Friday Thanks Ya_Ya_UrAWoman
submitted by olibird to newzealand [link] [comments]

YourSmartProfit

YourSmartProfit
Over 2 years we are successfully changing, developing and adjusting our project to bring prosperity to all our members.
Last change we did is implementation of ‘’Trading packs’’ for our members who don't have time or skills to monitor crypto markets and accordingly to the market behavior make a decision and take an action to bring themselves good profit.
Although this was designed for them, a lots of members, who, indeed are active crypto and forex traders took advantage of YSP Trading to add one more passive income into their portfolio.
Every active trader will always say to you that passive incomes are "must have" if you want to be successful in whatever market.
So, let’s start with introduction.
We offer two types of packages:
$25 per package which will bring you return of $10 per month for 12 months $250 per package which will bring you return of 100$ per month for 12 months
To be able to purchase those packages you have to have Pro membership which costs $3 and it lasts 30 days..
This membership has to be active every time you want to purchase Trading package, which means if you want to reinvest (compound) your monthly earnings you have to have active Pro membership.
Btw. with every purchase of Pro membership, you’ll get $1 position in ‘’Membership Matrix’’, which (trough cycling), except earnings, will give you positions in almost all YSP matrix plans via ‘’Matrix 5’’. You can’t get position in ‘’Matrix 5’’if you don’t have active Pro membership subscription.
Furthermore, every Trading pack purchase, automatically gives you one position in our interconnected matrix system
For more details, please visit our details page https://yoursmartprofit.com/public/details
Register and start your journey with us…. Welcome aboard!!
For faster support please join our FB: group:.https://www.facebook.com/groups/YSPOficiel/

https://preview.redd.it/feq48s5zs7w11.jpg?width=637&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7dee1563310210da0ab79028594e47166d90305b
submitted by nockoboy to u/nockoboy [link] [comments]

SKYFchain is strengthening its foothold in China!

Dear Supporters of SKYFchain!
SKYFchain is strengthening its foothold in China!
After an agreement with BitForex, the top 5 crypto-exchange focused on China, SKYF and large China’s logistics company ZTO Express signed an agreement on future shipments of SKYF drones, the unique unmanned aerial carrier.
The agreement allows ZTO Express to get on the list of SKYF drones pre-orders before the machines are available for commercial sales. This Chinese company has the vision of unmanned logistics that includes unmanned aerial vehicles of three categories: super heavy, medium and light drones.
SKYF drone’s cargo capacity is up to 400 kg. and it falls into the medium category. “We offer the first on the market and the most notable product in this weight category,” says Andrey Udod, SKYF’s partner and business development officer in Russia and CIS.
www.skyfchain.io
submitted by SKYFchain to u/SKYFchain [link] [comments]

James Stanley's "Fingertrap" Scalping Strategy (also good for longer term trading)

I posted this elsewhere a while back, but I thought I'd put it in /forex and not on the blog, because it's my absolute favourite tool in all of Forexland.
James Stanley is a (very good) trader and educator at DailyFX (Twitter: @JStanleyFX). He's also very friendly and helpful on Twitter if you have serious questions.
Here's the link to the original article but what I'm going to do is explain it in a little more detail, show you how James uses it, and then explain how I use it for finding entries on longer term trades and breakouts.
There's also this helpful video you can watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RrxOiAhIlaQ
Right, so before I explain what it is, here's a checklist for WHEN the Fingertrap strategy is effective:
If the answer to all those questions is yes, you're ready to go:
1: switch to an hourly or 2hr chart, so you can see what movement on the day is like. You should be able to spot a strong directional bias if there is one, and you may have already done analysis to find important support and resistance.
2: Add two indicators: an 8 period EMA (Exponential Moving Average) and a 34 period EMA. I don't know why those numbers, and different combinations might work better on different pairs (EUJPY tends to throw a lot of false signals with this, as does gold, so it's worth experimenting). We use EMAs and not SMAs because they respond more quickly. Here I'm looking at EUJPY on 2hr chart, on 26 April 2013):
http://i.imgur.com/9wqd36U.png
3: Is price clearly above or below BOTH moving averages (eg. it's a downtrend and price is below both, or an uptrend and it's above) AND has the 8 EMA crossed over the 34 EMA (crossed to the downside if you're looking at a downtrend). These two factors are a strong confirmation of a trend, if you need one.
4: Once you have confirmed that a trend is in place, switch to your preferred scalping timeframe. I usually use 5m or 1m charts. You'll now see that the 8EMA (which is the only one we're looking at from now on) hugs the price quite closely.
5: If we're in a downtrend, what we are looking for is for price to ideally break through some kind of support, and then to rebound to the 8EMA. It can push through it, even close a whole candle above it, but should eventually move back down below it.
This is your signal to enter short. As you can see from the chart below (same time, 5m chart), it's essential that you determine that there is a trend first and not just some jumping around.
http://i.imgur.com/pvjgeKg.png
6: The idea is to use relatively small trade sizes, and scale in and out of the trade rapidly. When price extends quite a bit away from the 8EMA, that's the time to take partial profits, wait for a rebound to the 8EMA, and then enter again.
7: The game ends when the 8EMA crosses the 34EMA again, and price is on the other side of both of them
The idea is that, even with strong moves, there are quick pullbacks. This strategy helps to give you an edge in determining where those pullbacks are likely to stop. It's not perfect, but no strategy is. The point is that it gives you a higher probability of entering at a good time (buying relatively low, or selling relatively high), and it also means you can have a lower risk entry (being closer to the last swing high).
Now, I don't get to do a lot of scalping because I have a day job, but I do use this for breakouts, and just any regular old entry as a matter of habit (unless I'm doing a fairly long term trade and 10 pips either way doesn't matter that much to me).
What I will do is wait for a breakout or a strong move in the direction I want. Then I put my Fingertrap template on, and wait for price to "reload" to the moving average before getting in, placing my stop above a nearby swing high. My stop will always be placed while thinking about how long I plan to hold the trade. If I'm looking for a move in GBP/USD from 1.56 down to 1.50, I'm not going to place my stop above the nearby swing high on the 5m chart - I'm going to place it around 1.5650. So you have to use your discretion obviously.
For example, I will be watching EUUSD very closely for a break of 1.3000 or 1.2950, and then employ it from there.
For scalping, the nearby swing high is definitely a good place to put it - if the trade goes that badly away from you, you definitely want to be out.
Give it a try, and let me know if you find it to be helpful! Let me know if you have any questions.
submitted by NormanConquest to Forex [link] [comments]

Autolinking New TLDs Test

example.AAA
example.AARP
example.ABARTH
example.ABB
example.ABBOTT
example.ABBVIE
example.ABC
example.ABLE
example.ABOGADO
example.ABUDHABI
example.AC
example.ACADEMY
example.ACCENTURE
example.ACCOUNTANT
example.ACCOUNTANTS
example.ACO
example.ACTIVE
example.ACTOR
example.AD
example.ADAC
example.ADS
example.ADULT
example.AE
example.AEG
example.AERO
example.AETNA
example.AF
example.AFAMILYCOMPANY
example.AFL
example.AG
example.AGAKHAN
example.AGENCY
example.AI
example.AIG
example.AIGO
example.AIRBUS
example.AIRFORCE
example.AIRTEL
example.AKDN
example.AL
example.ALFAROMEO
example.ALIBABA
example.ALIPAY
example.ALLFINANZ
example.ALLSTATE
example.ALLY
example.ALSACE
example.ALSTOM
example.AM
example.AMERICANEXPRESS
example.AMERICANFAMILY
example.AMEX
example.AMFAM
example.AMICA
example.AMSTERDAM
example.ANALYTICS
example.ANDROID
example.ANQUAN
example.ANZ
example.AO
example.APARTMENTS
example.APP
example.APPLE
example.AQ
example.AQUARELLE
example.AR
example.ARAMCO
example.ARCHI
example.ARMY
example.ARPA
example.ART
example.ARTE
example.AS
example.ASDA
example.ASIA
example.ASSOCIATES
example.AT
example.ATHLETA
example.ATTORNEY
example.AU
example.AUCTION
example.AUDI
example.AUDIBLE
example.AUDIO
example.AUSPOST
example.AUTHOR
example.AUTO
example.AUTOS
example.AVIANCA
example.AW
example.AWS
example.AX
example.AXA
example.AZ
example.AZURE
example.BA
example.BABY
example.BAIDU
example.BANAMEX
example.BANANAREPUBLIC
example.BAND
example.BANK
example.BAR
example.BARCELONA
example.BARCLAYCARD
example.BARCLAYS
example.BAREFOOT
example.BARGAINS
example.BAUHAUS
example.BAYERN
example.BB
example.BBC
example.BBT
example.BBVA
example.BCG
example.BCN
example.BD
example.BE
example.BEATS
example.BEAUTY
example.BEER
example.BENTLEY
example.BERLIN
example.BEST
example.BESTBUY
example.BET
example.BF
example.BG
example.BH
example.BHARTI
example.BI
example.BIBLE
example.BID
example.BIKE
example.BING
example.BINGO
example.BIO
example.BIZ
example.BJ
example.BLACK
example.BLACKFRIDAY
example.BLANCO
example.BLOCKBUSTER
example.BLOG
example.BLOOMBERG
example.BLUE
example.BM
example.BMS
example.BMW
example.BN
example.BNL
example.BNPPARIBAS
example.BO
example.BOATS
example.BOEHRINGER
example.BOFA
example.BOM
example.BOND
example.BOO
example.BOOK
example.BOOKING
example.BOOTS
example.BOSCH
example.BOSTIK
example.BOT
example.BOUTIQUE
example.BR
example.BRADESCO
example.BRIDGESTONE
example.BROADWAY
example.BROKER
example.BROTHER
example.BRUSSELS
example.BS
example.BT
example.BUDAPEST
example.BUGATTI
example.BUILD
example.BUILDERS
example.BUSINESS
example.BUY
example.BUZZ
example.BV
example.BW
example.BY
example.BZ
example.BZH
example.CA
example.CAB
example.CAFE
example.CAL
example.CALL
example.CALVINKLEIN
example.CAM
example.CAMERA
example.CAMP
example.CANCERRESEARCH
example.CANON
example.CAPETOWN
example.CAPITAL
example.CAPITALONE
example.CAR
example.CARAVAN
example.CARDS
example.CARE
example.CAREER
example.CAREERS
example.CARS
example.CARTIER
example.CASA
example.CASH
example.CASINO
example.CAT
example.CATERING
example.CBA
example.CBN
example.CBRE
example.CBS
example.CC
example.CD
example.CEB
example.CENTER
example.CEO
example.CERN
example.CF
example.CFA
example.CFD
example.CG
example.CH
example.CHANEL
example.CHANNEL
example.CHASE
example.CHAT
example.CHEAP
example.CHINTAI
example.CHLOE
example.CHRISTMAS
example.CHROME
example.CHRYSLER
example.CHURCH
example.CI
example.CIPRIANI
example.CIRCLE
example.CISCO
example.CITADEL
example.CITI
example.CITIC
example.CITY
example.CITYEATS
example.CK
example.CL
example.CLAIMS
example.CLEANING
example.CLICK
example.CLINIC
example.CLINIQUE
example.CLOTHING
example.CLOUD
example.CLUB
example.CLUBMED
example.CM
example.CN
example.CO
example.COACH
example.CODES
example.COFFEE
example.COLLEGE
example.COLOGNE
example.COM
example.COMCAST
example.COMMBANK
example.COMMUNITY
example.COMPANY
example.COMPARE
example.COMPUTER
example.COMSEC
example.CONDOS
example.CONSTRUCTION
example.CONSULTING
example.CONTACT
example.CONTRACTORS
example.COOKING
example.COOKINGCHANNEL
example.COOL
example.COOP
example.CORSICA
example.COUNTRY
example.COUPON
example.COUPONS
example.COURSES
example.CR
example.CREDIT
example.CREDITCARD
example.CREDITUNION
example.CRICKET
example.CROWN
example.CRS
example.CRUISES
example.CSC
example.CU
example.CUISINELLA
example.CV
example.CW
example.CX
example.CY
example.CYMRU
example.CYOU
example.CZ
example.DABUR
example.DAD
example.DANCE
example.DATE
example.DATING
example.DATSUN
example.DAY
example.DCLK
example.DDS
example.DE
example.DEAL
example.DEALER
example.DEALS
example.DEGREE
example.DELIVERY
example.DELL
example.DELOITTE
example.DELTA
example.DEMOCRAT
example.DENTAL
example.DENTIST
example.DESI
example.DESIGN
example.DEV
example.DHL
example.DIAMONDS
example.DIET
example.DIGITAL
example.DIRECT
example.DIRECTORY
example.DISCOUNT
example.DISCOVER
example.DISH
example.DIY
example.DJ
example.DK
example.DM
example.DNP
example.DO
example.DOCS
example.DOCTOR
example.DODGE
example.DOG
example.DOHA
example.DOMAINS
example.DOT
example.DOWNLOAD
example.DRIVE
example.DTV
example.DUBAI
example.DUCK
example.DUNLOP
example.DUNS
example.DUPONT
example.DURBAN
example.DVAG
example.DZ
example.EARTH
example.EAT
example.EC
example.ECO
example.EDEKA
example.EDU
example.EDUCATION
example.EE
example.EG
example.EMAIL
example.EMERCK
example.ENERGY
example.ENGINEER
example.ENGINEERING
example.ENTERPRISES
example.EPOST
example.EPSON
example.EQUIPMENT
example.ER
example.ERICSSON
example.ERNI
example.ES
example.ESQ
example.ESTATE
example.ESURANCE
example.ET
example.EU
example.EUROVISION
example.EUS
example.EVENTS
example.EVERBANK
example.EXCHANGE
example.EXPERT
example.EXPOSED
example.EXPRESS
example.EXTRASPACE
example.FAGE
example.FAIL
example.FAIRWINDS
example.FAITH
example.FAMILY
example.FAN
example.FANS
example.FARM
example.FARMERS
example.FASHION
example.FAST
example.FEDEX
example.FEEDBACK
example.FERRARI
example.FERRERO
example.FI
example.FIAT
example.FIDELITY
example.FIDO
example.FILM
example.FINAL
example.FINANCE
example.FINANCIAL
example.FIRE
example.FIRESTONE
example.FIRMDALE
example.FISH
example.FISHING
example.FIT
example.FITNESS
example.FJ
example.FK
example.FLICKR
example.FLIGHTS
example.FLIR
example.FLORIST
example.FLOWERS
example.FLY
example.FM
example.FO
example.FOO
example.FOODNETWORK
example.FOOTBALL
example.FORD
example.FOREX
example.FORSALE
example.FORUM
example.FOUNDATION
example.FOX
example.FR
example.FRESENIUS
example.FRL
example.FROGANS
example.FRONTDOOR
example.FRONTIER
example.FTR
example.FUJITSU
example.FUJIXEROX
example.FUND
example.FURNITURE
example.FUTBOL
example.FYI
example.GA
example.GAL
example.GALLERY
example.GALLO
example.GALLUP
example.GAME
example.GAMES
example.GAP
example.GARDEN
example.GB
example.GBIZ
example.GD
example.GDN
example.GE
example.GEA
example.GENT
example.GENTING
example.GEORGE
example.GF
example.GG
example.GGEE
example.GH
example.GI
example.GIFT
example.GIFTS
example.GIVES
example.GIVING
example.GL
example.GLADE
example.GLASS
example.GLE
example.GLOBAL
example.GLOBO
example.GM
example.GMAIL
example.GMBH
example.GMO
example.GMX
example.GN
example.GODADDY
example.GOLD
example.GOLDPOINT
example.GOLF
example.GOO
example.GOODHANDS
example.GOODYEAR
example.GOOG
example.GOOGLE
example.GOP
example.GOT
example.GOV
example.GP
example.GQ
example.GR
example.GRAINGER
example.GRAPHICS
example.GRATIS
example.GREEN
example.GRIPE
example.GROUP
example.GS
example.GT
example.GU
example.GUARDIAN
example.GUCCI
example.GUGE
example.GUIDE
example.GUITARS
example.GURU
example.GW
example.GY
example.HAMBURG
example.HANGOUT
example.HAUS
example.HBO
example.HDFC
example.HDFCBANK
example.HEALTH
example.HEALTHCARE
example.HELP
example.HELSINKI
example.HERE
example.HERMES
example.HGTV
example.HIPHOP
example.HISAMITSU
example.HITACHI
example.HIV
example.HK
example.HKT
example.HM
example.HN
example.HOCKEY
example.HOLDINGS
example.HOLIDAY
example.HOMEDEPOT
example.HOMEGOODS
example.HOMES
example.HOMESENSE
example.HONDA
example.HONEYWELL
example.HORSE
example.HOST
example.HOSTING
example.HOT
example.HOTELES
example.HOTMAIL
example.HOUSE
example.HOW
example.HR
example.HSBC
example.HT
example.HTC
example.HU
example.HUGHES
example.HYATT
example.HYUNDAI
example.IBM
example.ICBC
example.ICE
example.ICU
example.ID
example.IE
example.IEEE
example.IFM
example.IINET
example.IKANO
example.IL
example.IM
example.IMAMAT
example.IMDB
example.IMMO
example.IMMOBILIEN
example.IN
example.INDUSTRIES
example.INFINITI
example.INFO
example.ING
example.INK
example.INSTITUTE
example.INSURANCE
example.INSURE
example.INT
example.INTEL
example.INTERNATIONAL
example.INTUIT
example.INVESTMENTS
example.IO
example.IPIRANGA
example.IQ
example.IR
example.IRISH
example.IS
example.ISELECT
example.ISMAILI
example.IST
example.ISTANBUL
example.IT
example.ITAU
example.ITV
example.IWC
example.JAGUAR
example.JAVA
example.JCB
example.JCP
example.JE
example.JEEP
example.JETZT
example.JEWELRY
example.JLC
example.JLL
example.JM
example.JMP
example.JNJ
example.JO
example.JOBS
example.JOBURG
example.JOT
example.JOY
example.JP
example.JPMORGAN
example.JPRS
example.JUEGOS
example.JUNIPER
example.KAUFEN
example.KDDI
example.KE
example.KERRYHOTELS
example.KERRYLOGISTICS
example.KERRYPROPERTIES
example.KFH
example.KG
example.KH
example.KI
example.KIA
example.KIM
example.KINDER
example.KINDLE
example.KITCHEN
example.KIWI
example.KM
example.KN
example.KOELN
example.KOMATSU
example.KOSHER
example.KP
example.KPMG
example.KPN
example.KR
example.KRD
example.KRED
example.KUOKGROUP
example.KW
example.KY
example.KYOTO
example.KZ
example.LA
example.LACAIXA
example.LADBROKES
example.LAMBORGHINI
example.LAMER
example.LANCASTER
example.LANCIA
example.LANCOME
example.LAND
example.LANDROVER
example.LANXESS
example.LASALLE
example.LAT
example.LATINO
example.LATROBE
example.LAW
example.LAWYER
example.LB
example.LC
example.LDS
example.LEASE
example.LECLERC
example.LEFRAK
example.LEGAL
example.LEGO
example.LEXUS
example.LGBT
example.LI
example.LIAISON
example.LIDL
example.LIFE
example.LIFEINSURANCE
example.LIFESTYLE
example.LIGHTING
example.LIKE
example.LILLY
example.LIMITED
example.LIMO
example.LINCOLN
example.LINDE
example.LINK
example.LIPSY
example.LIVE
example.LIVING
example.LIXIL
example.LK
example.LOAN
example.LOANS
example.LOCKER
example.LOCUS
example.LOFT
example.LOL
example.LONDON
example.LOTTE
example.LOTTO
example.LOVE
example.LPL
example.LPLFINANCIAL
example.LR
example.LS
example.LT
example.LTD
example.LTDA
example.LU
example.LUNDBECK
example.LUPIN
example.LUXE
example.LUXURY
example.LV
example.LY
example.MA
example.MACYS
example.MADRID
example.MAIF
example.MAISON
example.MAKEUP
example.MAN
example.MANAGEMENT
example.MANGO
example.MARKET
example.MARKETING
example.MARKETS
example.MARRIOTT
example.MARSHALLS
example.MASERATI
example.MATTEL
example.MBA
example.MC
example.MCD
example.MCDONALDS
example.MCKINSEY
example.MD
example.ME
example.MED
example.MEDIA
example.MEET
example.MELBOURNE
example.MEME
example.MEMORIAL
example.MEN
example.MENU
example.MEO
example.METLIFE
example.MG
example.MH
example.MIAMI
example.MICROSOFT
example.MIL
example.MINI
example.MINT
example.MIT
example.MITSUBISHI
example.MK
example.ML
example.MLB
example.MLS
example.MM
example.MMA
example.MN
example.MO
example.MOBI
example.MOBILY
example.MODA
example.MOE
example.MOI
example.MOM
example.MONASH
example.MONEY
example.MONSTER
example.MONTBLANC
example.MOPAR
example.MORMON
example.MORTGAGE
example.MOSCOW
example.MOTORCYCLES
example.MOV
example.MOVIE
example.MOVISTAR
example.MP
example.MQ
example.MR
example.MS
example.MSD
example.MT
example.MTN
example.MTPC
example.MTR
example.MU
example.MUSEUM
example.MUTUAL
example.MUTUELLE
example.MV
example.MW
example.MX
example.MY
example.MZ
example.NA
example.NAB
example.NADEX
example.NAGOYA
example.NAME
example.NATIONWIDE
example.NATURA
example.NAVY
example.NBA
example.NC
example.NE
example.NEC
example.NET
example.NETBANK
example.NETFLIX
example.NETWORK
example.NEUSTAR
example.NEW
example.NEWS
example.NEXT
example.NEXTDIRECT
example.NEXUS
example.NF
example.NFL
example.NG
example.NGO
example.NHK
example.NI
example.NICO
example.NIKE
example.NIKON
example.NINJA
example.NISSAN
example.NISSAY
example.NL
example.NO
example.NOKIA
example.NORTHWESTERNMUTUAL
example.NORTON
example.NOW
example.NOWRUZ
example.NOWTV
example.NP
example.NR
example.NRA
example.NRW
example.NTT
example.NU
example.NYC
example.NZ
example.OBI
example.OFF
example.OFFICE
example.OKINAWA
example.OLAYAN
example.OLAYANGROUP
example.OLDNAVY
example.OLLO
example.OM
example.OMEGA
example.ONE
example.ONG
example.ONL
example.ONLINE
example.ONYOURSIDE
example.OOO
example.OPEN
example.ORACLE
example.ORANGE
example.ORG
example.ORGANIC
example.ORIENTEXPRESS
example.ORIGINS
example.OSAKA
example.OTSUKA
example.OTT
example.OVH
example.PA
example.PAGE
example.PAMPEREDCHEF
example.PANASONIC
example.PANERAI
example.PARIS
example.PARS
example.PARTNERS
example.PARTS
example.PARTY
example.PASSAGENS
example.PAY
example.PCCW
example.PE
example.PET
example.PF
example.PFIZER
example.PG
example.PH
example.PHARMACY
example.PHILIPS
example.PHOTO
example.PHOTOGRAPHY
example.PHOTOS
example.PHYSIO
example.PIAGET
example.PICS
example.PICTET
example.PICTURES
example.PID
example.PIN
example.PING
example.PINK
example.PIONEER
example.PIZZA
example.PK
example.PL
example.PLACE
example.PLAY
example.PLAYSTATION
example.PLUMBING
example.PLUS
example.PM
example.PN
example.PNC
example.POHL
example.POKER
example.POLITIE
example.PORN
example.POST
example.PR
example.PRAMERICA
example.PRAXI
example.PRESS
example.PRIME
example.PRO
example.PROD
example.PRODUCTIONS
example.PROF
example.PROGRESSIVE
example.PROMO
example.PROPERTIES
example.PROPERTY
example.PROTECTION
example.PRU
example.PRUDENTIAL
example.PS
example.PT
example.PUB
example.PW
example.PWC
example.PY
example.QA
example.QPON
example.QUEBEC
example.QUEST
example.QVC
example.RACING
example.RAID
example.RE
example.READ
example.REALESTATE
example.REALTOR
example.REALTY
example.RECIPES
example.RED
example.REDSTONE
example.REDUMBRELLA
example.REHAB
example.REISE
example.REISEN
example.REIT
example.REN
example.RENT
example.RENTALS
example.REPAIR
example.REPORT
example.REPUBLICAN
example.REST
example.RESTAURANT
example.REVIEW
example.REVIEWS
example.REXROTH
example.RICH
example.RICHARDLI
example.RICOH
example.RIGHTATHOME
example.RIO
example.RIP
example.RO
example.ROCHER
example.ROCKS
example.RODEO
example.ROGERS
example.ROOM
example.RS
example.RSVP
example.RU
example.RUHR
example.RUN
example.RW
example.RWE
example.RYUKYU
example.SA
example.SAARLAND
example.SAFE
example.SAFETY
example.SAKURA
example.SALE
example.SALON
example.SAMSCLUB
example.SAMSUNG
example.SANDVIK
example.SANDVIKCOROMANT
example.SANOFI
example.SAP
example.SAPO
example.SARL
example.SAS
example.SAVE
example.SAXO
example.SB
example.SBI
example.SBS
example.SC
example.SCA
example.SCB
example.SCHAEFFLER
example.SCHMIDT
example.SCHOLARSHIPS
example.SCHOOL
example.SCHULE
example.SCHWARZ
example.SCIENCE
example.SCJOHNSON
example.SCOR
example.SCOT
example.SD
example.SE
example.SEAT
example.SECURE
example.SECURITY
example.SEEK
example.SELECT
example.SENER
example.SERVICES
example.SES
example.SEVEN
example.SEW
example.SEX
example.SEXY
example.SFR
example.SG
example.SH
example.SHANGRILA
example.SHARP
example.SHAW
example.SHELL
example.SHIA
example.SHIKSHA
example.SHOES
example.SHOP
example.SHOPPING
example.SHOUJI
example.SHOW
example.SHOWTIME
example.SHRIRAM
example.SI
example.SILK
example.SINA
example.SINGLES
example.SITE
example.SJ
example.SK
example.SKI
example.SKIN
example.SKY
example.SKYPE
example.SL
example.SLING
example.SM
example.SMART
example.SMILE
example.SN
example.SNCF
example.SO
example.SOCCER
example.SOCIAL
example.SOFTBANK
example.SOFTWARE
example.SOHU
example.SOLAR
example.SOLUTIONS
example.SONG
example.SONY
example.SOY
example.SPACE
example.SPIEGEL
example.SPOT
example.SPREADBETTING
example.SR
example.SRL
example.SRT
example.ST
example.STADA
example.STAPLES
example.STAR
example.STARHUB
example.STATEBANK
example.STATEFARM
example.STATOIL
example.STC
example.STCGROUP
example.STOCKHOLM
example.STORAGE
example.STORE
example.STREAM
example.STUDIO
example.STUDY
example.STYLE
example.SU
example.SUCKS
example.SUPPLIES
example.SUPPLY
example.SUPPORT
example.SURF
example.SURGERY
example.SUZUKI
example.SV
example.SWATCH
example.SWIFTCOVER
example.SWISS
example.SX
example.SY
example.SYDNEY
example.SYMANTEC
example.SYSTEMS
example.SZ
example.TAB
example.TAIPEI
example.TALK
example.TAOBAO
example.TARGET
example.TATAMOTORS
example.TATAR
example.TATTOO
example.TAX
example.TAXI
example.TC
example.TCI
example.TD
example.TDK
example.TEAM
example.TECH
example.TECHNOLOGY
example.TEL
example.TELECITY
example.TELEFONICA
example.TEMASEK
example.TENNIS
example.TEVA
example.TF
example.TG
example.TH
example.THD
example.THEATER
example.THEATRE
example.TIAA
example.TICKETS
example.TIENDA
example.TIFFANY
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Forex Investors Alliance - YouTube KG Sea Wave Forex Scalping Strategy - How To Trade Using Forex Strategies Teknik forex kang gun (KG) KG WORLD - YouTube Forex KG - Identifikasi Trend Menggunakan BBMA Ala Kang Gun Analisa FX Ala KG - RDL 2 belajar analisa chart ala kg 10

KG Analyse Forex Trend Following-Strategie ist eine Kombination von Metatrader 4 (MT4) Indikator(s) und Vorlage. Die Essenz dieser Forex-Strategie ist es, die akkumulierten Historiendaten und Trading-Signale zu transformieren. KG Analyse Forex Trend Following-Strategie bietet die Möglichkeit, verschiedene Besonderheiten und Muster in Preisdynamik erkennen, die mit dem bloßen Auge nicht zu ... 194# Forex Daily; 195# KG SEA Wave 1.1; 196# Stochastic Forex Strategy with tree exponentials moving averages; 197# Scalping Wave with 123 pattern; 198# Luxury Scalping; 199# Market is Dead Scalper MDS; 200# Paling Mudah; 201# T3 Clean and Bollinger Bands; 202# Centre of Gravity and Stochastic; 203# Red and Blue Scalping ; 204# Stochastic, Bollinger Bands and LWMA's; 205# Scalping with TDI ... Diggin on KG Range Calculator which is an exceptionally good indicator. 1) Regarding Range it is what it is average <> daily <> min <> max use common sense to decipher if you had 7 apples and you ate 3 what remains ..... 2) The other settings are for trends. As given below. MAMethod: MODE_SMA 0 Simple moving average, MODE_EMA 1 Exponential moving average, MODE_SMMA 2 Smoothed moving average ... Nichts ist günstiger als Forex! Schon für 15 Euro bekommen Sie Ihr Wunschfoto im Format 60 x 40 cm als Wandbild nach Hause geliefert. Doch wie gut sehen Fotos aus, wenn sie auf eine Hartschaumplatte gedruckt werden? Wir haben es getestet und Wandbilder von drei Anbietern unter die Lupe genommen. Forex GmbH & Co. Forstmaschinen Vertriebs KG mit Sitz in Malchow ist im Handelsregister mit der Rechtsform GmbH & Co. KG eingetragen. Das Unternehmen wird beim Amtsgericht 17033 Neubrandenburg unter der Handelsregister-Nummer HRA 147 geführt. Das Unternehmen ist wirtschaftsaktiv. Die letzte Änderung im Handelsregister wurde am 02.09.2016 vorgenommen. Das Unternehmen wird derzeit von 3 ... Forex GmbH & Co. Kg. Lindenallee 18 in Malchow, ☎ Telefon 039932 8570 mit ⌚ Öffnungszeiten und Anfahrtsplan 10 kg Eimer 28,73 € 2,87 ... FOREX 10 - 15 % mit kaltem, klarem Wasser verdünnen (1 Teil FOREX auf 9 Teile Wasser). Bodenbelag inkl. Fugenmaterial mit reichlich kaltem, klarem Wasser vorwässern. Anschließend reichlich Reinigerlösung auf den Boden ausbringen (500 - 650 ml Anwendungslösung/m2). Einwirkzeit ca. 5 Minuten. Während der Einwirkzeit Flotte manuell oder maschinell in Bewegung ... Die FOREX verkauft nicht nur Maschinen der Marke JOHN DEERE FORESTRY, sondern ist ebenso bekannt für herausragende Leistungen in Beratung, Kundendienst und Ersatzteilversorgung. Beschäftigen Sie sich mit der Investition einer neuen oder gebrauchten Forstmaschine? Dann kommen Sie zu uns. Wir stehen Ihnen als kompetenter Partner mit den Produkten des Weltmarktführers JOHN DEERE FORESTRY zur ... FOREX Gmbh & Co. KG Lindenallee 18 17213 Malchow Kommunikation. Zentrale: Telefon: (039932) 857-0 Telefax: (039932) 14270 Email: info(at)forex-malchow.de. Teile & Zubehör: Telefon: (039932) 857-15 (039932) 857-19 (039932) 857-20 Telefax: (039932) 857-70 WhatsApp: (0172) 6944375 Email: teile(at)forex-malchow.de. Kontakt Marienberg. FOREX Gmbh & Co. KG Serpentinsteinstraße 50 09496 Marienberg ... Forum Forex Indonesia, forum trader indonesia diskusi ttg belajar forex,broker forex,analisa forex,sistem trading forex

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Forex Investors Alliance - YouTube

Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Sedikit penjelasan tentang membaca current dan average pada range calculator acuan harian. WE DO THE ANALYSIS, AND YOU DO THE TRADE... ;-) We are here just want to share our analysis, and you can use it for free with your own risk . We know that th... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. WATCH: Forex Trading Strategies - this news direction #forextradingstrategy is a killer. PEOPLE KEEP ASKING IN THE COMMENTS, HERE IS MY PRIMARY BROKER: - Ope... Halo teman teman pada video kali ini saya ingin menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengidentifikasi trend menggunakan BBMA Ala KG, ini menurut versi saya yah, mungki... ForexMT4Indicators.com is a compilation of free download of forex strategies, forex systems, forex mt4 indicators, forex mt5 indicators, technical analysis and fundamental analysis in forex trading. belajar analisa chart ala kg 10 hermanto lie. Loading... Unsubscribe from hermanto lie? ... Pelatihan Forex HI Kuningan by kang Monang - Part 1 - Duration: 30:08. HIKuningan 7,725 views. 30:08 ... Forex KG - Identifikasi Trend Menggunakan BBMA Ala Kang Gun - Duration: 19:26. Privat Forex Indonesia 5,046 views. 19:26 . Professional Forex Trading Course Lesson 1 By Adam Khoo - Duration: 58:55 ... Teknik forex kang gun (KG) FOREX. Loading... Unsubscribe from FOREX? Cancel ... AAA Binary Options MT4 Indicator Forex 80% Rate GBP/USD Example - Duration: 5:04. AAA Binary Options ...

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